AB - The amino-terminal domain of the cytokine receptor homologous region (BN domain; roughly 100 amino acid residues) in the receptor for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was secreted as a maltose- binding protein fusion into the Escherichia coli periplasm. The murine BN domain (mBN) was prepared from the fusion protein by restriction protease Factor Xa digestion and purified to homogeneity. The purified BN domain specifically and stoichiometrically bound G-CSF, with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 3-8 x 10-8 M. The CD spectrum of the mBN domain was similar to that of the extracellular region of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor, which is composed of turns and β-sheets held together by disulfide bonds. Tertiary folding and the β-sheet of this small domain was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Disulfide bonds determined by peptide mapping were in the following locations: Cys107-Cys118, Cys153- Cys162, and Cys143-Cys194. Among them, the first and the second produce small loops (roughly 10 amino acid residues) as found in the human GH receptor. These results suggested that the mBN domain of the G-CSF receptor expressed by E. coli has a GH receptor-like structure. However, the third disulfide bond varied considerably between the G-CSF and GH receptors. Disruption of these disulfide bonds in the BN domain of the G-CSF receptor suggested that all of them are critical for maintaining a stably folded protein. Our results will facilitate understanding of the biophysical and structural properties of this receptor.
The rat estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta, which differ in the C-terminal ligand binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand binding specificity of the ER subtypes. Saturation ligand binding analysis of in vitro synthesized human ER alpha and rat ER beta protein revealed a single binding component for 16 alpha-iodo-17 beta-estradiol with high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = nM for ER alpha protein and nM for ER beta protein]. Most estrogenic substances or estrogenic antagonists compete with 16 alpha-[125I]iodo-17 beta-estradiol for binding to both ER subtypes in a very similar preference and degree; that is, diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > 17 beta-estradiol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol > nafoxidine, moxestrol > clomifene > estriol, 4-OH-estradiol > tamoxifen, 2-OH-estradiol, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol, genistein for the ER alpha protein and dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > 17 beta-estradiol > estrone, genistein > estriol > nafoxidine, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol > 17 alpha-estradiol, clomifene, 2-OH-estradiol > 4-OH-estradiol, tamoxifen, moxestrol for the ER beta protein. The rat tissue distribution and/or the relative level of ER alpha and ER beta expression seems to be quite different, . moderate to high expression in uterus, testis, pituitary, ovary, kidney, epididymis, and adrenal for ER alpha and prostate, ovary, lung, bladder, brain, uterus, and testis for ER beta. The described differences between the ER subtypes in relative ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution could contribute to the selective action of ER agonists and antagonists in different tissues.